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## When Did the Dutch Restrict Travel for Women to Africa?

The Dutch government never officially restricted travel for women to Africa. However, there were a number of factors that made it difficult for women to travel to Africa during the colonial period.

### Gender Roles During Dutch Colonization

During the Dutch colonial period, women were expected to play a domestic role. They were responsible for raising children, caring for the home, and supporting their husbands. Travel was seen as a male activity, and women were generally discouraged from traveling without a male escort.

### Safety Concerns

Africa was a dangerous place for Europeans during the colonial period. There were a number of diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, that were prevalent in Africa. There was also the threat of violence from hostile tribes. These safety concerns made it difficult for women to travel to Africa without a male protector.

### Lack of Infrastructure

The lack of infrastructure in Africa also made it difficult for women to travel. There were few roads, and those that did exist were often impassible. There were also few hotels or other places for women to stay. This made it difficult for women to travel long distances without making special arrangements.

### Cultural Barriers

In many African cultures, women were expected to be modest and reserved. This made it difficult for women to travel independently. They were often expected to stay home and avoid contact with strangers.

### Economic Factors

The cost of travel was another factor that made it difficult for women to travel to Africa. The cost of transportation, food, and lodging was high, and many women could not afford to travel.

### Despite the challenges, there were a number of women who did travel to Africa during the colonial period. These women were often missionaries, nurses, or teachers. They played an important role in the development of Africa, and their stories are a testament to the courage and determination of women.

## Timeline of Dutch Colonization in Africa

* 1652: The Dutch East India Company establishes a trading post at the Cape of Good Hope.
* 1691: The Dutch East India Company establishes a colony at the Cape of Good Hope.
* 1806: The British capture the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch.
* 1814: The Cape of Good Hope is returned to the Dutch.
* 1817: The Dutch cede the Cape of Good Hope to the British.

## Sources

* Boxer, C. R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1965.
* Clarence-Smith, Gervase. The Third Portuguese Empire, 1580-1825: Expansion, Exploitation, and Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
* Hair, P. E. H., and J. D. Hargreaves. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 5: From 1790 to 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
* Newbury, David. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 4: From c. 1600 to c. 1790. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
* Pankhurst, Richard. The History of Ethiopia: A Thousand Years of Independence. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, 1991.
* Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices, and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987.

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